Determination of Incremental Local Pulse Wave Velocity Using Arterial Diameter Waveform: Mathematical Modeling and Practical Implementation

Nabeel P M1, V Kiran Raj2, Jayaraj Joseph3, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam1
1Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 2Indian Institute of Technology, 3HTIC IIT Madras


Background and Aim: Given the knowledge of the non-invasive assessment of local pulse wave velocity (PWV) for cardiovascular risk stratification, it is apparent that it is necessary to develop a practically feasible solution to measure and trace instantaneous variations in local PWV (incremental local PWV) from the target arteries. Methods: From the arterial blood pulse propagation characteristics, wave nature of the transmural pressure, and the distending vessel wall geometry, a mathematical model was developed to evaluate incremental local PWV using arterial diameter waveform. Its practical feasibility and the measurement accuracy were demonstrated in-vivo using a custom image-free ultrasound device, with the Bramwell-Hill method as the reference. Results: The proposed technique and developed device reliably captured incremental local PWV from the carotid artery. The locus of instantaneous variations in carotid local PWV obtained using the developed model traced the reference values, with a root-mean-square-error lesser than 0.05 m/s. Study results further established the practical feasibility and accuracy of this novel approach. Conclusion: The theoretical basis and measurement method of this work is a solution for non-invasive, real-time assessment of incremental local PWV and its locus.